Definitions

Chemical change:
any change in which a new substance is formed
Kinetic Molecular Theory: a thgeory that states that all matter i smade up of particles in continious random motions; temperature is a measure of the average speed of the particles
Reactants:a substance that participates in a chemical reaction and that is consumed during the reaction
Word Equation: a representation of a chemical reaction using only the names of the chemicals involved
Chemical equation: a representation of a chemical reaction that indicates the chemical formulas, relative number of entities, and states of matter of the reactants and products
Coefficient: a whole number indicating the ratio molecules or formula units of each substance involved in a chemical reaction
Catalytic Converter: a device that uses a catalyst to covert polutant molecules in vehicle exhaust to less harmful molecules
Catalyst: a substance that speeds uo the rate of a reaction without undegoing permanant change itself
Law Of Conversation Of Mass: the law stating that during a chemical reaction matter is neither breated nor destroyed
Combustion Reaction:the reaction of a substance with ocygen, producing oxides and ebergy
Synthesis Reaction: a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a more complex substance; also known as a combination reaction
Decompposition Reaction: a chemical reaction in whihc a compound is broken down into two or more simpler substances
Green House Gas: a theory stating that heat is trapped near Earth's surface by carbon dioxode gas, atomospheric water vapour and some other gases
Acid Rain: any from of natural percipitation that has an abnormally high acidity
Thermal Decomposition: a decomposition reaction that occurs when the reactant is heated
Single Displacement Reaction: the reaction of an element with a compound to produce a new element and a new compound
Activity Series: a list of elements arranged in oreder of theire reactivity, based om empirical evidence gatherede from single displacement reactions
Alloy: a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of two or more metals
Galvanization: coating iron or steel with zinc to prevent rusting
Double Displacement Reaction: a reaction in which aqueous ionic compounds reaarange cations and anions, resulting in the formation of new compounds
Solute: a substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution (e.g., salt, NaCl)
Solvent: the medium in which a solute is dissolved; often the liquid component of a slution (e.g., water)
Solubillity: a property of a solute; concentration of a saturated solution of a solute in a solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
Precipitate: form a low-solubility solid from a solution (verb); the solid is formed in a chemical reaction or by decreased solubility (noun)
Neutralization: a double displacement reaction between an acid and a base to produce an ionic compound (a salt) and usually water







Law_of_Conservations.jpg

A new substance is formed:
  • change colour
  • formation of bubbles (one of the product is gas)
  • ordour = smell
  • heat or light is given out (exchange energy)
  • precipitate (solid product)

Word Equation
a) Nitrogen + Hydrogen -----> Ammonia
N² + H² --------> NH³ Skeleton Equation
N² + 3H² --------> 2NH³ Balanced Equation
3 and 2 are Coefficient

b) Copper + Silver nitrate -----> Silver + Copper (II) Nitrate
Cu (s) + 2AgNO³ (aq) ------> 2Ag (s) + Cu(NO³)² (aq)
aq= aqueous -----> dissolved in water

c) Methane Oxygen ------> Carbonate Water
CH⁴(g) + 2O²(g) -------> CO²(g) + 2H²O(l) + Heat

Types of Reaction
1.) Combustion
2.) Synthesis
3.) Decomposition
4.) Double Displacement
5.) Single Displacement

5 Types of Reactions

Exothermic = Heat is produced
Endothermic= Heat is absorbed (cold)

Combustion Reactions

Fuel+ Oxygen ------> Products + Heat

Ethane+Oxygen ------> CO2+H20+Heat
C2H6(g) + O2(g) -----> CO2+H2O

Balanced Equation
2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) -----> 4CO2+6H2O

Synthesis Reactions

A chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a more complex substance.

Element + Element --> Compound
A + B ---> AB


Nitrogen + Oxygen ---> Nitrogen monoxide
N2 (g) + O2 (g) ---> 2NO (g)

2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) ---> 2NaCl

Decomposition Reactions

A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into two or more simpler substances.

Compound ---> Element + Element
AB ---> A + B


Sodium Chloride ---> Sodium + Chlorine
2 NaCl (l) ---> 2Na (l) + Cl2 (g)

Nitrogen monoxide ---> Nitrogen + Oxygen
2NO (g) ---> N2 (g) + O2 (g)

Single Displacement Reactions

The reaction of an element with a compound to produce a new element and a new compound.


Element + Compound --> New element + New compound
A + BC --> AC + B


Mg (s) + CuSO4 (aq) ---> Cu (s) + MgSO4 (aq)
Magnesium is more reactive than Copper, therefore displaces Cu from CuSO4 or Cu (s).

ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s) --> This reaction will not take place
Cu is lessreactive, therefore it cannot displace Zn from ZnSO4 or Zn is more reactive.

Double Displacement Reactions

A reaction in which aqueous ionic compounds rearrange cations and anions, resulting in the formation of new compounds.

Compound + Compound --> New compound + New compound
AB + CD ---> AD + CB


Lead Nitrate + Potassium Iodide ---> Lead Iodide + Potassium Nitrate
Pb(NO3)2 + KI ---> PbI2 + KNO3

Barium Nitrate + Sodium Sulphate ---> Barium Sulphate + Sodium Nitrate
Ba(NO3)2 + Na2SO4 ---> BaSO4 + NaNO3

Net Ionic Equations

The net ionic equation for the reaction of aqueous barium chloride and aqueous sodium sulfate.
net_ionic_eq.JPG