Coordination Compounds PPT
Presentation (parts)
Final Final Draftexternal image 12192_seriously_mad_scientist_with_large_bug_eyes_holding_test_tubes_and_standing_by_eyeballs_in_a_lab.jpg: Due November 30, 2008 at midnight
Link to final draft


Synthesis of co-ordination compounds

Project outlineCo-ordination compounds


Entry 1:

Some links related to this topic:

Look up ligands

To fully understand the synthesis of co-ordination compounds, we looked up any information we can find in the textbook first:

(However, we are not sure if the information matches with the reported)

Page 78 - the co-ordinate covalent bonds: shared valency or shared electrons (covalent bond) of the same atom such as NH3 or Sulfate

Polyatomic Ions: a group of atoms - covalent bonds - with an overall charge

Posted by: Helen Lu

09/23/08, 8:12PM

Entry 2:

Looking up ligands... found the structure of coordination compounds connected to it.

Structure of Coordination Compounds: complexation chemistry first described by its "coordination number", the number of ligands attached to the metal.

So, co-ordination is describing how many bonds there are to a compound? Is that right?

Ligands are atoms, ions, or molecule bonding to a central metal, generally losing one or more electrons to it. Those that are covalent bonds before tends to turn more ionic.

In plain english, any element connecting to one and only one metal as its core, and since this is a compound the elements must form bonds and these bonds are the "types of co-ordinations"?

Um.... A bit confused... need some help. I don't really understand the co-ordination part.

Posted by: Helen Lu


Entry 3:

So from what I understand, a coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond where electrons from ONE atom make the WHOLE bond. This can be done with a non-metal to create a substance that is similar to and ionic one. This allows particles such as H+ to form in compounds even though it doesn't have any electrons.

I'm not sure how we can go about doing this though.

Posted by: Aidan Muller

Entry 4:

I did some research and found the following information. i copied and pasted it into a word document since britannica online requires you to sign up or else it will annoy you with a popup on top of all the text. i copied and pasted as much text as i could, closed the popup, and repeated it a million times and recovered the following:

Posted by: Gorick Ng


Entry 5:

I get it now!

Basically a coordinate covalent bond is when an atom with a lone pair (when it's bonded) gives that lone pair to an atom missing two electrons so that it forms a bond. And this bond is totally indistinguishable from other bonds because they all look the same.

ANY reaction where that occurs can be called a coordinate covalent bond, which is just a fancy term that means what I just said above.

And a crystallization occurs because everything is grouped around an atom, and forms multiple bonds with the atom in the center AND each other. It's like this web of bonds. So that makes it crystalline, and they stack on top of each other to form a crystal. At least, I think that's how it works, because I haven't researched this at all.

Now all we need to do is to find a compound that involves covalent bonding and crystallizes, and describe a procedure in which we can get the thing to actually crystallize.

Angela Li

Omg...this colour is so cool.

Entry 6:

To crystalize a liquid substance I think can be done by leaving a string hanging over a container of whatever substance in the center. The substance will crystalize around the string and yeah. I know this can be done with sugar anyways.

Aidan Muller

Entry 7:

I think I know what you're talking about. But doesn't that experiment involve putting the thing in water and waiting for the water to evaporate? How can we be sure that the water won't influence our experiment in any way? Because we'd have to leave it uncovered for the water to evaporate or heat it, and that will kill our experiment.

Angela Li


The crystalization happens naturally. No heating or evapouration. Also I found this link. We might be able to use one of these cations.

Aidan Muller

Entry 9:


Assuming that I'm right by saying that crystallization indicates coordinate covalent bonding if we can prove that lone pairs exist, etc, we have to say that since crystallization occurs, what we discovered therefore indicates coordinate covalent bonding. Because the whole point is to prove that it actually happened, no?

Angela Li

Entry 10:

I remember doing an experiment awhile ago in elementary school with Borax. When you mix Borax together with boiling water, you get crystals. Would this be the same type of reaction we're talking about here? More details in the following sites:

Gorick Ng

Entry 11:

According to,

"Borax is also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, and is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. It is usually a white powder (don't confuse with other white powders) consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water."


"The term borax is often used for a number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content:
  • Anhydrous borax (Na2B4O7)
  • Borax pentahydrate (Na2B4O7·5H2O)
  • Borax decahydrate (Na2B4O7·10H2O)
Borax is generally described as Na2B4O7·10H2O. However, it is better formulated as Na2[B4O5(OH)4]·8H2O, since borax contains the [B4O5(OH)4]2− ion. In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron atoms (two BO4 tetrahedra) and two three-coordinate boron atoms (two BO3 triangles).
Borax is also easily converted to boric acid and other borates, which have many applications. If left exposed to dry air, it slowly loses its water of hydrationmineral tincalconite (Na2B4O7·5H2O). and becomes the white and chalky
When borax is added to a flame, it produces a bright orange color. This property has been tried in amateur fireworks, but borax in this use is not popular because its waters of hydration inhibit combustion of compositions and make it an inferior source of the sodium which is responsible for most of its flame color, and which overwhelms the green contributed to the flame by boron.
However, commercially available borax can be mixed with flammables such as methanol to give the characteristic green flame of boron when ignited, which then slowly gives way to the characteristic yellow-orange flame of the sodium."

Does coordinate covalent bonding happen here when it crystallizes? We would have to prove that first.

Angela Li

P.S. I just realized that I was really incoherent in Entry 9. I hope everyone understood what I was trying to say.

Entry 12: Ok guys, so I just posted the Sources of Experimental Error on the draft page of the lab report. Please review it and make any necessary changes. -- Gorick